Laura H. Chapman gives more examples of the distortion and corruption of education practice amd policy by econometric language.
Students are performing on grade level if their scores on a standardized test are at or above the median on a percentile scale (1-99). On a large-scale test, a score at or near the 50th percentile (the median) will usually classify a student as proficient in the skills and subject matter on the test.
Expected growth means that gain-scores of students (on tests in a single subject, such as math or art) are staying in about the same location in a distribution from year to year—below average, average, or above average. For a large number of students, the distribution is likely to resemble a bell or normal curve.
Predicted growth is an inference about a student’s future gain-score, derived from a linear regression analysis of two or more years of that…
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